One recent article, presented energy costs from bioenergy crops in the United Stated to be from 22$/dt (dried ton) to 110$/dt depending on crops and regions. Switchgrass and Short Rotation coppice with willows and poplar are the best known alternatives. But so many other species should be addressed.
A Midwest study, which includes 12 states (IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, OH, SD, WI) estimates that 155 million dry Mg (171 million dt) of switchgrass and 6.6 million dry Mg (7.3 million dt) of short rotation wood crops could potentially be produced for <$55/dry Mg ($50/dt) delivered. Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota were estimated to have the largest potential to provide bioenergy crops at prices below $55/dry Mg.
Several species and possible bioenergy crops can produce sustainable biomass for heating and power or advanced biofuels. We think that being capable to establish best species, varieties and crop management techniques require a holistic view in United States. This is required because some crops can produce extremely high yields when cultivated in very fertile sites. However we often see those scenarios to have higher costs compared to energy crops with lower potential but stable and modertely high yields also in marginal lands.
The abstract of above mentioned publication:
U.S. bioenergy crop production cost, supply curve, and transportation cost studies are summarized and compared. Production cost estimates range from <$22/dry Mg [$20/dry ton (dt)] to more than $110/dry Mg ($100/dry ton) depending on crop, region, yield and method of analysis. A detailed description of an ORNL study is presented as a representative production cost study. Three national supply curve estimates are compared; for a quantity of 110 million dry Mg (100 million dry tons), these studies estimate marginal bioenergy crop prices of $29/dry Mg ($26/dt) (farmgate), $46/dry Mg ($42/dt) (farmgate), and $55/dry Mg ($50/dt) (delivered). Three regional supply curve analyses are also discussed. Bioenergy crop transportation costs estimates range from $5.5/Mg ($5/dt) and $8/Mg ($7.27/dt) for a haul distance of 40 km (25 miles). The paper closes with a discussion of analytical needs.
Full article can be read here: